RSS Feed

Tag Archives: David Hume

Demystifying Democracy: A Critical Look at Democracy and Ideology

2 Comments

Throughout history the many have always been ruled by the elite few. David Hume, in The First Principles of Government, highlights this fact as one of the great philosophical mysteries since “Force is always on the side of the governed,” and finds that it is “on opinion only that government is founded, and this maxim extends to the most despotic and most military governments, as well as to the most free and popular.” (Hume, 19) The opinion that Hume refers to relies on ideology and it certainly applies to today’s most popular form of governance, democracy. Democracy has become the means for the elite to maintain power over the masses after the individualistic and natural rights philosophies delegitimized other previously common forms of governance such as monarchy; further, democracy has transcended its original role as a possible means to individual liberty and has become an ideological end and has been made sacred to the point that it is beyond debate in the minds of many. However, democracy must be objectively judged against the goals of promoting and securing individual liberty in order to make the most informed decisions in regards to foreign policy, such as the benefit of “spreading democracy,” as well as domestic policy where individual rights are most affected.

A clear definition of ideology, as it is used here, must be established in order to effectively communicate the nature of its relationship to democracy and power in general. The common usage of the term, a system of beliefs and values, is too vague and simple to fit this purpose. Robert Higgs, in Crisis and Leviathan, defines ideology this way: “ideology…[is] a somewhat coherent, rather comprehensive belief system about social relations…it is somewhat coherent…though not necessarily in a way that would satisfy a logician…it is rather comprehensive [since] it subsumes a wide variety of social categories and their interrelations…[However,] it tends to revolve about only a few central values—for instance, individual freedom, social equality, or national glory.” (Higgs, 37) This definition does describe ideology but is lacking a component necessary to explain why its variants, such as ideological (which usually implies fanaticism), usually carry a negative connotation or to fully explain why “ideologies are the crucial lever at the disposal of elites for obtaining political mobilization and for maximizing the possibilities of mass manipulation,” (Higgs, 47) that Higgs alludes to later in his book. In order to complete Higgs definition it is necessary to require individuals to subordinate themselves to their chosen ideology. This subordination of the individual is what can lead to fanaticism, which is why fanatics do not appear to be acting in their “own best interests,” and it complements Hume’s answer as to how the elite few rule the masses: the masses have subordinated their own interests to an ideology that legitimizes the current form of power held by the elite. In Western Political Though: From Socrates to the Age of Ideology, Brian Nelson writes, “ Ideologies…tend to replace the idea of personal autonomy with a higher principle of moral progress beyond the individual, a principle to which the individual is to subordinate him- or herself…ideologies tend to subordinate the individual’s moral agency rather than actualize it. (Nelson, 360) In sum, ideology is a coherent, comprehensive belief system that subordinates personal moral autonomy to some higher principle(s) that the belief system revolves around. Another implication of this definition of ideology is that the source of the belief system is external to the individual adherents and the evolution of ideologies ensures that only a limited number that attracts large numbers of adherents tend to survive or have influence. Higgs explained that “opinion leaders are the producers and distributors of (a limited number of) ideologies; the masses are mainly consumers.” (Higgs, 45) The potential for mass manipulation by the opinion leaders should be apparent and if those opinion leaders are also the ruling class with a monopoly over coercive force then their potential threat to individual liberty is exponentially greater.

Read the rest of this post

Filed under Philosophy, Politics
Oct 7, 2012

The Danger of Pure A Priori: Philosophy Without Experience

0 Comments

UPDATED AGAIN: The response from the involved party is that I have misrepresented or failed to understand how they were using A Priori. The use of the term is very diverse and so this is very possible. I tried to base my discussion based on the examples and illustrations provided. The essay still applies to the idea that an ethical or value based system can be derived entirely internally by the individual sans experience. I have recently studied the way Murray Rothbard, Roderick T. Long, and to a lesser degree Ludwig von Mises use the term. Without these more detailed explanations I initially found their refusal to test their theories or apply them empirically problematic, but after understanding what they really meant I can now more strongly support praxeology. I may explore that more in a future post.

UPDATE: Made some semantic changes to essay. Changed Pure A Priori to Pure A Priori thought process. Also, gave new definition of a priori in terms section. Real content of essay unchanged but wanted to prevent semantics from being a diversion.

The following essay is in response to recent conversations that I have had. I have kept in fairly general so it can be understood outside of the context of those conversations. However, I plan to follow up with a short essay more specifically addressing some of the topics of the conversation with context provided. I will also post any responses from the opposing parties on this topic. The available formats for viewing the essay are after the break.

html

doc

Filed under Philosophy
Nov 27, 2009